What is Hydraulic Fracturing?
It is a process of drilling for natural oil and gas underneath the ground. It creates fractures in the rocks and rock formations by interjecting a mixture of water and sand into the fractures (cracks) to force open the area present underground. This technique is also called as fracking.
In brief, water when mixed with other components is pumped into the ground to create fractures (cracks or fissures) in order to release the gas into the wells that are actually built for collection. The fluid that is extracted usually contains proppant type sand that enhances the fractures to remain open so that gas and oil are conveniently produced into the well. However, larger fissures allow excessive oil and gas to flow out of the formation and into the well from the place it is being extracted.
This technique has resulted in the development of several oil and gas wells achieving a condition of economic viability due to the consistency of extraction. Moreover, when high pressure comes into play, effective and powerful pressure relief valve is highly necessary. In that case, frack valves help to regulate the pressure levels in the entire pumping system. They can go as deep as 5,000 feet to 10,000 feet below the surface of the Earth. Nonetheless, emergency shut off valves are equally important. Major damage can be caused to the pump and the pumping system if there is no pressure relief valve. Hence, a rupture pin-based pressure relief valve or emergency shut off valve can be used instead.
Why the Need of This Technique?
The oil and gas industries are hard core users of this technology. The natural gas present in our environment is consummated from both conventional as well as unconventional geological formations. In case of conventional reservoirs, the oil and gas relatively flows through an array of pores in the rock all the way to the well. However, on the other hand, unconventional reserves are trapped in low-permeability rocks. Geologists find it very difficult to access the trapped gas present inside these rocks.